Friday, March 20, 2020

Communism Versus Democracy essays

Communism Versus Democracy essays Every country needs to have a stable and effective government in order to form a prosperous and peaceful society. Due to the fact that each country has different culture and ways of living, peoples opinion on political system may vary: some people find one type of government system suitable for the society they belong to while others may prefer a different type because it gives them better living standard in one way or the other. Long ago, humans started to choose leaders for the protection and development of their regions. This system has still been preserved till the present day that people choose a representative or a leader in the hope that they would lead their hometown into better directions. The two major types of political systems this paper will cover are Democracy and Communism. Despite their differences, both systems seek ways to help improve and reform a society. To fully understand the aspects and principles of both systems, it would be wise to acknowledge the ad vantages and disadvantages of each system so that we can comprehend why one system become so popular while the other collapse. Communism. According to the Websters dictionary, communism is fundamentally a system of social organization in which property (especially real property and the means of production) is held in common. In other words, communism attempt to establish a non class society where people live with the jobs provided by the government. It is the ideology based on equality. Communism hasnt just recently been invented, but its idea of having no institutions of private property has first begun in the ancient Greek era. However in modern usage, communism sometimes refer to the movement that aim to overthrow the capitalist order by revolutionary or mass protest. There are lots of people who criticize the ideas and operations of communism, but the problem is that these people are too narrow minded that they overlook the b...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Great Poetry Collections to Read During Every Month of the Year

Great Poetry Collections to Read During Every Month of the Year 7 Great Poetry Collections To Read During Every Month Of The Year Now that April, national poetry month, has passed, you don’t have to put your beloved poetry away until next year. Short of taking a poetry class, or gathering your friends to meet at favorite places that still allow smokers with snapping fingers to enjoy their favorite spoken word artists, why not browse your local book store that remains open because it loves books so much it will not allow the Internet crunch of places like Amazon to close it out of business. Yes, feel the book in your hands folks, and get some new material to last the rest of the year. There are tons of poetry books out there that you have yet to read. Come on, get outside of your box and try something new and quirky. If you are already into quirky, try some romance poetry, or period pieces. It will also motivate you to perform custom writing.  I was recently exposed to the WWI British Poets, which includes Brooke, Owen, Sassoon, Rosenberg and Others, (it’s actually the title), and the entire cont ents had me in analyzing mode much longer than I had anticipated. Here are some of the favorites that seem to withstand time. If you have not read them, what are you waiting for. Grab a book, feel and smell its pages, there is nothing in the world like the smell of a bookstore! Edgar Allen Poe 1809  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ1849, The Raven If you don’t already know this poem you are in for a literary treat. This celebrated piece is pure Poe. The Raven is based on a talking raven that comes to the home of a lover who is falling into madness due to love lost. Those who love rhyming and much alliteration will want to read this one again and again. Emily Dickinson 1830  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ1886, (Any of her collections) You can’t go wrong with a collection by Emily Dickinson. This is one poet whose headstone should have read, â€Å"She did it her way.† Dickinson wrote to write. She did not fit her themes into any one genre, although the words pun, irony, satire and humor will cross your thought process while delving into the many, many lines this poet penned. Ted Hughes 1930-1998, Poet Laureate from 1984 until he died: Birthday Letters Critically acclaimed to be one of the best poets of his generation, Hughes is also famous for his controversial marriage to famous American poet Sylvia Plath, who committed suicide in 1963. Birthday Letters delves into their relationship, and one Last Letter, discovered in October 2010, gets into details what occurred during her last days before her suicide. Langston Hughes 1902 –1967, Montage of a Dream Deferred Mr. Hughes an American poet, social activist, and well-known as one of the leaders of the Harlem Renaissance wrote Montage in the form of a Jazz session. When reading this beautiful work, get ready to dip and sit, switch and groove, because it reads like a symphony of music from deep in the heart of Harlem, moving the reader uptown and downtown, through the nights and into the following day. Get your groove shoes on and join Mr. Hughes as he reflects the Harlem he loved dearly. Sarfraz Zaidi, MD: You are not who you think you are. Poetry Collection Taking a leap forward to living poets, you may want to read the works by Dr. Zaidi. He is a rising star in the medical field. His expertise with Vitamin D, the thyroid and his stress management techniques are big on you tube. This book of his writing may now always rhyme but he is stressing living in the â€Å"right now† and that is where each and every day should bring us, to our now. Happy Reading!

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Discuss the key features of effective corporate decision making and Essay - 1

Discuss the key features of effective corporate decision making and access how well these are being applied in an organisation y - Essay Example Contextually, it can be stated that effective decision-making is a systematic process through which business managers select alternative sources and implement it in an efficient manner in order to attain their various business purposes and objectives by a significant level (Harvey, 2007). Police forces of the United Kingdom (UK) can be recognised according to the set of ranks under which several types of departments are operated in an effective manner. The UK police comprise British police force and City of London Police where various sorts of job responsibilities are distributed according to the departmental requirement. In general, the core mission of entire police forces is to prevent crime and protect community people against the conduct of any uncertain criminal assaults. It has been apparently observed that the UK police forces perform their job responsibilities according to the community requirements (Association of Chief Police Officers, 2011). In this paper the key features of an effective corporate decision-making process will be taken into concern. Moreover, the application of this process relating to the UK police force has also being discussed. ... n to determine the workplace objectives of the police force of the UK, it has been viewed that the core workplace objective of the UK police is to maintain equality that helps them to create and make essential decisions in order to improve their operational performance. In this regard, the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) of the UK formulates certain equality objectives in order to evaluate diversity as well as equality amid the entire police forces. Through this aspect, departmental heads understand the behavioural attitudes of entire police force and also comprehend their acceptance capability towards fulfilling their different job responsibilities (Assistant of Chief Police Officer, 2011; Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime, 2013). There are several equality objectives that are implemented within the workplace of the UK police force through which they can improve their operational performance. These equality objectives include delivering fair, responsive as well as favou rable services to every community member and engaging all the community members in listening as well as responding their respective problems. Additionally, the other objectives comprise developing an effective workforce in order to become more responsible towards the community members and preserving equality standards while performing and delivering services to the community members (Assistant of Chief Police Officer, 2011; Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime, 2013). After acquiring a brief idea about the workplace objectives of the UK police force, it has been viewed that at present, UK police department face several types of workplace issues that impose considerable impact upon their operational activities. Since the past few years, ‘Public disorder’ is one of the challenging issues

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Corporate and Global Strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Corporate and Global Strategy - Essay Example Such organizations bring out the best in people. Some people research on an organization’s culture before they job-hop, so that they know whether they will be able to gel in the organization. It would be very practical to perceive leaders as both architects and products of an organization. This is because a good organization develops the leader and a good leader develops the organization. Even individuals, who are effective in one team, might not be effective in another or fail to make a substantial contribution. An organization is an artificial person and has an identity. This identity is given to the organization by its leaders and employees. Besides that, leaders also impact how the organization interprets its surroundings and what are its values, which relationships are important, which feedback matters and what information is available etc. The organization’s norms and boundaries shape leader’s behavior and view. Even after joining a new job, an employee obs erves the things that are important to his boss or CEO to determine the organization’s value system and expected employee behavior. Organizations that have established an identity for themselves stand a better chance of experiencing cooperation. This in turn leads to goal alignment and overall performance tends to show an upward-moving trend. Collective identity is more important from an organization’s point of view because it creates a sense of commitment to the organization, enriches the organizational culture and augments cooperation. Leaders shape culture through modeling, teaching and coaching (Northern Leadership Academy, 2012). Influential leaders also affect ethical behavior of the organization as a whole and this can be better understood through the A-B-C model (where A is the ethical lapse, B is the leader’s behavior as a response to this lapse and C is the result of the leader’s behavior). An organization’s ethical behavior and moral con duct is either weakened or strengthened by the conduct of its leaders. Take the case of an accounting clerk who manipulates results to conceal errors; if the leader does not take any effective action against number manipulation then the practice of manipulating figures to cover up errors is strengthened in the organization. Similarly if one employee bullies another and the leader takes serious action against it, then the tendency to bully is greatly weakened in the organization. For instance, leaders who are morally correct will not bend the rules in any case and voice their resentment in case of an ethical lapse. However there are some leaders who are indifferent to an ethical lapse and let unethical things happen in front of them. The character of the leader builds the character of the organization. So a leader’s behavior shapes the organization’s future behavior. Where it is true that a leader has the capacity to influence the organizational behavior, it is also imp ortant to note that a leader also has to come up with ways to shape organizational behavior favorably. If a leader wants to bring about a change, he has to mold himself for the change first and then expect the whole organization to follow his footprints. Changing one’s behavior for the organization is not easy as it requires a lot of loyalty and responsibility on the part of the leader. A good leader will always place the organization’s interest above his self-interest. He is not reactive but instead proactive. He nibs the evil in the bud by clearly informing employees which unethical

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Factors on Stock Market Development in SAARC Region

Factors on Stock Market Development in SAARC Region The Impact of Institutional and Macroeconomic Factors on Stock Market Development in SAARC region Fayaz Ahmed Soomro Problem Statement There are many researches concerned about the relationship between the Macroeconomic variables and the stock market performances[1]. Researchers have analyzed many different factors of Macroeconomic variables like GDP, Savings, Credit facilities, Shares traded, interest rates, remittances from abroad, trade deficit, consumer banking, production of industrial goods, liquidity and more macroeconomic factors having significant impact and are the major contributors in stock market development[2]. Researches also claim that there is one way relationship between stock market development and macroeconomic variables[3]. Researchers have also concentrated on the impact of quality of institutions on the development of equity market in developing countries specially[4]. However there is has been not much interested directed towards institutional quality having impact on stock market development in SAARC region. This research is focused on testing the theory and adding empirical evidence from in terms of impact of quality of institutions on the development of equity market. This research might help the respective countries of SAARC in understanding better the factors contributing in the development of stock market in the SAARC territory and May helps the policy makers to devise better and effective policies for the whole region. Objective To determine the impact of the quality of institutions with macroeconomic factors are having on the development of stock markets in SAARC region. Research Question What is the impact of quality of institutions with macroeconomic factors on the performance of the stock markets? Literature Review Development of the Stock markets and the growth of the economy There has been found that stock market development and economic prosperity are highly correlated Levine and Zervos (1996). The study adopted positivist approach and correlational in nature and based on 41 countries in the period 1976- 1993, the quantitative method was adopted. It was deduced based on the hypothesis taking sample population of 41 countries in the period 1976- 1993 that there exist a high correlation among stock market and growth of economy. Unidirectional effect of Macroeconomic Variables Macroeconomic factors affects the stock prices in the unidirectional way that is stock prices does not affects the Macroeconomic variables to change Hussain and Mehmood (2001). The approach adopted is quantitative in nature and falls in the domain of positivist research paradigm. The deduction was based on sample population of Pakistan by considering the period of 1959-60 to 1998-99. Stock Market and Economic Prosperity Evidence from India Economic prosperity is highly related with the stock market performance in the economy Deb and Mukherjee (2008). He analysed by the quantitative research methods and hence within positivism research paradigm that in India economic prosperity leads to the better stock market performances. He deduced that there is a relationship between economic prosperity and the stock market development in India by taking sample population of India from the period of ten years. It was also found that there exists a bidirectional causal relation among the said variables. Development in the Stock Market of Pakistan Liquidity and the prices of the stocks do not have any relation in any direction Ali et al. (2010). This research falls into the Post Positivism research paradigm because it is refuting the generalization made in the literature that money supply and stocks prices have no relation at all in any direction. This was tested by using Granger-causality test, Augmented Dickey Fuller, Unit Root Test and the test of co-integration (Johansen) have been applied. He also found that there is no causality effect among the liquidity and stock prices, industrial production , exchange proportion, rising prices, balance of trade and prices of the shares in Pakistan. Foreign Direct Investment is highly related to stock market development Raza et al. (2012) this research adopted quantitative and hence followed the positivism research paradigm that is, it tested the theory in consistent with the literature. The factors like savings, rising prices and money exchange rates were also considered and were found significant. Savings were in line with stock market however inflation and money exchange rate were found to have a negative impact. The research found that 70 percent of the increase in development of stock market is caused by the one percent change in FDI inflow. This is a huge impact so the government of Pakistan should be looking forward to protect the foreign investors and facilitate them as much as possible. There should be framework under which the foreign investors can take the easily their part and keep on investing in order to promote the stock market activities in the region. Stock Market development in Bangladesh The stock market of the Bangladesh is not mature yet and it’s not up to the standards of international markets, however this research identified many factors affecting the stock market development in Bangladesh Rrahman and Rahaman (2011). The research adopted quantitative and followed Positivist approach. Data was collected from the period 2001 to 2008 and was collected from various reliable sources of Bangladesh. Many different statistical techniques were used like descriptive analyses, correlation analyses were applied. All the variables were found to have significant impact. It was also suggested that Bangladesh stock market is highly volatile and there has much to improve in order to make it up to international standards. Stock Markets and the Institutional Quality Insitutional quality plays important role in the development of various sectors of the economy. Its implication has been tested and proved significant in the non banking financial sector in the Middle East and African regions Creane et al. (2004). The proxies that were used are Banking Industry, Money Supply, yearly monetary and fiscal policies, industrial regulations, financial corruption and the quality of institutions. Recommendation made in this report is about to increase the quality of institutions. Yartey (2008) Institutional factors including the political stablity, quality in bureaucracy, stability of democracy, corruptions, general regulations and laws with other macro economic factors were found to have a significant effect on the stock market activities because it usually increases financial facility to the general public and they tend to invest in the equity market. The data was collected from the period 1990 until 2004 that is total 14 years of 42 emerging economies. The data was analyzed through regression analysis. However risk in the political stability was suggested a major contributing in the stock exchange market enhancement. In other Burhop et al. (2011) tried to find the regulatory body as the important components of the stock exchange market. In his studies he considered London equity market and the stock market of berlin and quantified as in the form of IPO- initial Public Offerings. However he could not conclude whether regulatory body plays an important role in the stock market activities but he found that long term profits and survival in the competition as the important factor in the successful market. Research Methodology Epistemology This research tries to identify the Institutional factors and other macroeconomic factors that lead to the development of stock market, this knowledge already exist and justified in the region of Middle East in the International Monetary Fund’s working paper of Billmeier and Massa (2007). Nature of Knowledge This research tries to test already existing knowledge in the literature Billmeier and Massa (2007) which was specifically applied in the regions of Middle East and Central Asia. The theory has been tested quantitatively that exist in literature and adopted Positivism approach. This research adds the empirical proof from the SAARC region. Methodology- Positivism This research is also quantitative in nature and follows the positivism approach because it’s in consistent with the existing literature and follows the systematic scientific approach to find its applicability in the SAARC region. The gap in the empirical evidence was identified and in order to fill the gap same propositions were developed but in different context of its application Validity The method, approach, statistical technique and the measurement of the variables are in consistent with the International Monetary Fund’s working paper. That means theory already exist but it has been applied in the different context that is in SAARC region. Institutional quality has been measured as a index of Economic freedom by Heritage Index of Economic Freedom and other macroeconomic variables has been measured and reported by the World Bank and the data has been collected from their published reports. The detailed measurement is as follows Market Capitalization: This is has been measured as total value of the shares outstanding in the stock markets which is the total sum of shares prices multiplied by the no of outstanding securities. For this research it has been taken as the percentage of GDP. IQ: Institutional Quality: Institutions are the formal governing bodies in any country which look after the overall governing structure of the economy. These institutions guide the economy about political activities, social activities and the economic activities. Quality of institutions is enhanced with efficient and effective working of institutions. Quality is measured by Heritage Foundation as score from 0 to 100, the lowest value being the poorest form of quality and higher the score the higher the quality. INC: Income: It is represented as the total value of production within the country and has been measured at constant base of year 2000 US $ in Billions. INV: Investment: It is represented by the addition in the aggregate value of fixed assets with any inventories. This has been taken in this research as capital formation percentage of the GDP SVT: Stock value traded: It is represented by the shares total value in the specific period. This has been also taken as percentage traded over GDP DC: Domestic credit: It is represented by the total value of lending to the customers in the private sectors. This has also been taken as percentage of GDP. Reliability This theory has been applied in the region of SAARC region from the period 1996 to 2012. It is suggested the this theory will produce more or less the same results if carried out in the different period of time in the SAARC region Generalizability This same theory was applied and proved in the region of Middle East. This research also proved and produced the same results in the SAARC region hence It can be concluded that this theory is applicable to the regions with similar conditions of economy like in Middle East and Central Asia. Synthetic a posteriori proposition The proposition in this research says that Institutional Quality and macroeconomic factors have significant and positive impact on the stock market development in the SAARC region. This proposition is a synthetic a posteriori and subject to empirical verification from the above region. Deduction Reasoning General statements 1: Quality of institutions affects significantly on the development of stock market. 2: GDP affects significantly on the development of stock market. 3: Domestic credit affects significantly on the development of stock market. 4: Stock traded value affects significantly on the development of stock market. 5: Gross capital formation affects significantly on the development of stock market. Hypotheses Ho1: Quality of the institutions affects insignificantly on the development of stock market. Ha1: Quality of the institutions affects significantly on the development of stock market. Ho2: GDP affects significantly on the development of stock market. Ha2: GDP affects insignificantly on the development of stock market. Ho3: Domestic credit affects significantly on the development of stock market. Ha3: Domestic credit affects significantly on the development of stock market. Ho4: Stock traded value affects significantly on the development of stock market. Ha4: Stock traded value affects significantly on the development of stock market. Ho4: Gross capital formation affects significantly on the development of stock market. Ha4: Gross capital formation affects significantly on the development of stock market. Conclusion 1: Institutional quality does impact significantly on the development of stock market 2: GDP does impact significantly on the development of stock market 3: Domestic credit does impact significantly on the development of stock market 4: Stock traded value does impact significantly on the development of stock market 5: Gross capital formation does impact significantly on the development of stock market Falsification As this research is in consistent with the existing theory and has been only tested without amendments hence it is not refuting any theory of knowledge but adds empirical evidence in the literature from untested region that is South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries. Data Collection and Source In this research secondary data has been used. Data of institutional quality collected from the Index of Economic Freedom of Heritage Foundation. Data of macroeconomic variables collected from the World Bank. Target Population The research focuses on the regions of SAARC economies in particular countries Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Srilanka. Sample Size The dataset of 5 economies has been considered. The year 1995 to 2010 that is for 15 years of 5 countries of the SAARC region making it a total observations of 75 has been taken as the sample size. Statistical Technique The sample data of dependent variable and independent variables will be analyzed by ordinary least square method of multiple regression analyses technique. Research Model MCP = ÃŽ ± + ÃŽ ²1 IQ + ÃŽ ²2 INC + ÃŽ ²3 INV + ÃŽ ²4 SVT + ÃŽ ²5 DC + e Where MCP:Market Capitalization IQ: Institutional Quality INC: Income INV: Investment SVT: Stock value traded DC: Domestic credit 1 [1] Deb and Mukherjee (2008) Mustafa and Cagatay (2012) [2] Ali et al (2010), Raza et al (2012) [3] Hussain and Mehmood (2001) [4] Billmeier and Massa (2007), Lombardo and Pagano (2000), Yartey (2008), Burhop et al (2011)

Friday, January 17, 2020

Diabetes in Developing Countries

Diabetes in developing countries Deaths from diabetes, which has two primary forms including type1 and type2 diabetes, have become a significant problem in the world. Nowadays, diabetes is still a disease not having precise method to cure. As a result of surplus blood sugar, it has a negative effect on the human body and leads to several complications, such as vision problems, kidney damage, nerve damage and heart and circulation problems (Pollock, 2006). Consequently, the increased risk of these diseases makes it become one of the major causes of deaths.For example, according to the WHO (2011), more than 346 million people were diagnosed with it worldwide and between 50% and 80% of them died from CVD. With the development of health care, the mortality in developed countries was decrease, while the situation in developing countries is so serious that 80% of diabetes deaths exist in low and middle income countries (WHO, 2011). For instance, such countries in The Middle East, Pacific I slands and Southeast Asia had 115million diabetic patients in 2000 and the WHO (2011) predicts that the number will double between 2005 and 2030.To mitigate the effects of diabetes, the causes of it need to be detected. Type 1 diabetes, which is known by lacking insulin production, results from several causes and possible factors. First, genes attribute mainly to it. More than 18 genetic locations related to it have been discovered by researchers and they have found that people with an especially HLA complex which means human leukocyte antigen, are more likely to develop it. A good illustration of it is other autoimmune disorders may caused by such complexes, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (Smith, 2010).The second factor is a viral infection which may affects the disease by attacking immune system. For instance, Kamiah (2010) states that a series of diseases from gastrointestinal problems to myocarditis can created by the coxsa ckie B virus. In addition, there are some special conditions which may attribute to it. For example, certain drugs including corticosteroids, beta blockers, and phenytoin, rare genetic disorders such as Klinefelter syndrome and Wolfram syndrome, and hormonal disorders such as acromegaly and hyperthyroidism all raise the possibility of it (Simon, 2009).It has been one of the most increased diseases worldwide, however, type 2 diabetes is more common. Unlike type 1 diabetes, causes of type 2 diabetes, which results from the ineffective use of insulin (WHO,2011), usually are multifactorial. First, being overweight or obese is a primary reason for it. The increased risk of it may bring several complications including heart disease, stroke and some cancers. A good illustration of this is 82% of people with it are caused by overweight or obese and such complications (Vann,2009).The second is genetic factors which have been found more than 10 genic material associated with it. For example, there are more possibilities for people to get it if they have close relatives having it, such as parents and siblings. Thirdly, ethnic origin also plays a part in it. For instance, NHS (2010) points out that people with it from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern are six times likely than people in the UK. In addition, incorrect living styles such as poor eating habits, too much TV time and physical inactivity also have a negative effect on it.It is often not a single factor but two or more causes above combined to lead to it. According to the CDC (2010), such combinations give rise to approximately 95% of it in the U. S. As can be seen from data, diabetes in developing countries has become a huge problem and the mortality from it has a continued increase worldwide. Not only government, but people should change their attitudes and aware the importance in order to prevent it.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Role of Intra-party Opposition in National Liberation...

The Role of Intra-party Opposition in National Liberation Movements By and large, in the latter half of the twentieth century a regime change has meant the victory of a leftist national liberation movement over an oppressive power; whether the new regime makes good on its stated purpose of delivering justice to its people has not evidenced such a standard pattern, however. While liberation movements such as the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa were able successfully to convert their role as revolutionary â€Å"freedom fighters† into democratic participation in the state (Connell, 9), movements such as Castro’s Cuban Revolution, while accomplishing regime change, failed to deliver a successful state. This paper suggests that†¦show more content†¦Radical Islamic Palestinian nationalist groups, the most prominent of which is Hamas, adamantly resist any concessions to the state of Israel and maintain that the PA should not be negotiating with the I sraeli government. While there is little question that Hamas and similar organizations have had both the intent and the effect of erecting impediments on the road to a peace in the Middle East, this paper aims to dispel the notion that Palestinian opposition groups have completely derailed the peace process. Instead, I will argue that the presence of such vehement dissent is a necessary part to a lasting peace accord and to a stable two-state solution, as this intra-party opposition is often the most difficult hurdle to surmount for a national liberation movement that is attempting to rise to state power. To be clear, I argue that a critical first step to running a peaceful democratic state, before territory or infrastructure, is to pacify radical parties in a non-dictatorial fashion; a process by which a new political regime proves itself capable of state governance by tying together the moderate with the extreme. I further assert that the notion is incorrect that because the PA is born out of the PLO, an organization that employed guerrilla tactics to spoil peace efforts, the new Authority is necessarily an untrustworthy body. I will argue that in the majority of cases, as exemplified by South Africa,Show MoreRelatedWPA in Guyana Essay918 Words   |  4 Pagesoutside world, where the Soviet Union and its allies, although supportive of liberation movements around the world, did not endorse the local struggles for democracy; and played realpolitk with small countries? The Guyanese state had also by that time, with its critical role in the non-aligned movement, its anti-apartheid stand, and increasing ties with socialist countries benefited from the that most of the allies of the opposition Marxist-Leninist PPP welcomed Guyana’s support as a state. While theRead MoreUnited Nations Role in Conflict Management in Africa: a Case Study of Darfur11729 Words   |  47 Pagesindividuals, p arties or states. 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A few words of warning about the term postmodernism Overview of the structure and rationale of the book Chapter summaries